Individual[ edit ] The formalization of constructivism from a within-the-human perspective is generally attributed to Jean Piaget, who articulated mechanisms by which information from the environment and ideas from the individual interact and result in internalized structures developed by learners.

Develop a range of instructional and assessment methods and test preparation methods. Instruction Linda Gojakformer NCTM President, noted that "Over the last three decades a variety of instructional strategies have been introduced with a goal of increasing student achievement in mathematics.

Such strategies include individualized instruction, cooperative learning, direct instruction, inquiry, scaffolding, computer-assisted instruction, and problem solving" with the flipped classroom being a recent addition to the list para.

Blended learning is also on the rise, which adds online learning to traditional classrooms. Thus, another goal for teachers is to investigate instructional and assessment methods and how they might be incorporated appropriately into lesson plans. In its Principles to Actions: Ensuring Mathematical Success for All, NCTM indicated the following research-based mathematics teaching practices, which should be "consistent components of every mathematics lesson": Establish mathematics goals to focus learning.

Implement tasks that promote reasoning and problem solving.

Use and connect mathematical representations. Facilitate meaningful mathematical discourse. Build procedural fluency from conceptual understanding. Support productive struggle in learning mathematics.

Elicit and use evidence of student thinking. Active student involvement reinforces learning. This is not to minimize the role of direct instruction, however.

Students should become active in the learning process immediately upon entering the classroom. Muschla, Muschla, and Muschla-Berry stated: Losing just the first five minutes daily amounts to 25 lost minutes per week of instruction and could amount to a loss of 20 class periods of instruction per school year.

Their solution is using a math-starter problem that students begin immediately upon entering the classroom. Each is designed to be completed in minutes, which includes reviewing the answer and any follow-up discussion. This strategy is also good for classroom management, as during this time the teacher can take attendance, pass back papers, interact individually with students, and observe students as they work p.

Strategies can help understand the problem, simplify the task, determine the cause of a problem, involve external aids to help identify problem solutions, use logic to help identify possible solutions.

Strategies can also identify a possible solution to serve as a starting point to solve a problem, or determine which possible solution is best. Strategies can employ geometric thinking, help you to function optimally while problem solving, and help solve multiple problems.

George Polya's Problem-Solving Techniques contain details of his four principles that have become a classic for math problem-solving: Assessment Assessing student understanding and designing instruction to meet learners' needs are challenging tasks.

Popham noted that assessment is a broad term: Assessments also include the variety of informal techniques a teacher might use to check on the status of students' skills for the purpose of guiding instruction rather than for grade-giving, such as when a teacher periodically projects multiple-choice questions on a screen during a lesson and asks students, "on the count of three," to hold up one of four prepared index cards showing the letter of what each student believes is the correct answer.

Popham,Preface section, para. See Part 2 of this essay for more on the role of assessment. Specific strategies for math and other content areas are included. CT4ME has an entire section devoted to standardized test preparation. Mathagogy includes several two-minute videos from math educators around the world who are sharing how they approach teaching various topics.

For example, teachers have uploaded how they introduce sine and cosine graphs, teach inquiry, algebraic literacy, prime numbers, proportions, probability, proof, and how they teach using Cuisenaire rods or using one question lessons.

Improving Instruction The following delves into theory and research; learning styles, multiple intelligences and thinking styles; and differentiated instruction and the educator's ideology. Theory and Research Every teacher should have some knowledge on how students learn and be able to connect research to what they do in the classroom.

In the Science of Learningthe Deans for Impact provide a valuable summary of cognitive science research on how learning takes place. In it you'll find cognitive principles and practical implications for the classroom related to six key questions on how students understand new ideas, learn and retain new information, and solve problems; how learning transfers to new situations; what motivates students to learn; and common misconceptions about how students think and learn About section.May 26, · Words: Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: Piaget Harry James Potter was born in , the son of James and Lily Potter.

Both of Harry's parents died when Harry was an infant. The murder of his parents literally left Harry Potter scarred for life: his lightening bolt-shaped scar is one of his most distinguishing physical features.

Jumpstart Your Paper. Discover great essay examples and research papers for your assignments. Jean Piaget and Age Essay. ball at the age of two years. Paraphrasing: Atherton J S () learning and teaching; Piaget’s development theory Jean Piaget () was a Swiss biologist who became interested in the intellectual development of children.

Published: Mon, 5 Dec This paper will first look at the definition of a pupil with Special Educational Needs. Child () explains that the label Special educational needs (SEN) extends to a broad range of children with varying forms of difficulty in learning, opposed to the majority of their peers of a similar age.

This essay will be summarising the contributions and shortcomings of the Cognitive-Developmental theory and firstly explore the background and key concept’s of Piaget’s work behind child development.

Child development theories guide teaching practices of children from birth to 11 years of age. One key issue shaping curriculum design is the development of learning standards. The arrival of standards into programs serving children from birth to 11years of age has challenged those who want to ensure the implementation of developmentally appropriate practices during a standards-based.

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