Definition, Features, Benefits, Disadvantages and Problems!
The revival of traditional earthen dams to capture rainwater for recharging the underground water supply provided a tipping point that brought the wells back to life.
And with the water came a better life for the people. It started in the spare, humble village of Gopalpura. Rajasthan receives a scant 16 inches of rainfall annually. Most of it falls during the monsoon months from June to September, leaving the soil to parch the rest of the year.
Religious rituals have emphasized how precious water is. It shows how water is related to our culture from birth to death. Ancient Hindu scriptures mention the key technology: Drawing upon centuries of experience, people built structures to catch and hold the monsoon rains and store them for the dry season to come.
Archeologists have dated some rainwater catchments as far back as B. The dominant structure was the johad, a crescent-shaped dam of earth and rocks, built to intercept rainfall runoff.
A johad served two functions.
On the surface, it held water for livestock. But like an iceberg, its most important parts were below the surface. By holding water in place, it allowed the liquid to percolate down through the soil.
It recharged the aquifer below, as far as a kilometer away. Stored underground, the water could not be lost to evaporation.
In the midst of the dry season, without pipes or ditches to deliver water, villagers could always count on plenty of water from their wells, and irrigated fields lush with wheat, mustard and beans.
A johad was more than any one family could build. It took a village. But because every villager had a stake in the johads, residents banded together to build and maintain them. The rajas, the kings of small states who gave the region its name, would often finance johad construction, taking a sixth of the crops in return.
Community institutions extended to other shared resources. Because forest conservation was bound up with water, villagers regulated the cutting of trees.
As late as60 percent of the land was covered with forests where villagers gathered firewood and royal families went hunting for tigers. Nor Any Drop to Drink After centuries of relative stability, the social contract around water and trees began to fall apart when Great Britain consolidated its control over India late in the 19th century.
Crown companies were hungry for timber, and too many princes were willing to provide it. First, they declared the forests off-limits to the villagers who had tended them for generations.
Later on, they sold the logging rights. Then the local raja, afraid of losing his lands to the new national government, let the loggers in.
The venerable trees turned into railroad ties and charcoal. The deforestation of Alwar set off a slow-motion chain reaction in which the ruin of one resource led to the ruin of others, and the impoverishment of nature led to the impoverishment of the people.
The first wave of degradation was the loss of the trees themselves. Their destruction starved out wildlife and exposed the topsoil to erosion.
When the rains came, they washed soil down the treeless hillsides, and much of that soil was deposited in johad ponds. Over time, thousands of johads were filling with silt. As silted johad ponds channeled less water underground to recharge the aquifer, the underground water began to retreated deeper below the surface.
In earlier times, villagers would have dug out the silt and rebuilt their crumbling dams. But as the government seized more and more of their common lands, they had less and less incentive to protect what was left. Where farmers had once banded together to manage their resources, now they competed over the dwindling remains.
Traditional village councils, called gram sabhas, fell apart, and a tradition of communal labor washed away with the topsoil.
So, one by one, the structures gradually deteriorated and stopped being used. But the new wells ensnared them in a vicious cycle. When the water table dropped, they drilled even deeper; and the deeper they drilled, the more the water dropped.A bureaucrat is a member of a bureaucracy and can compose the administration of any organization of any size, although the term usually connotes someone within an institution of government..
The term bureaucrat derives from "bureaucracy", which in turn derives from the French "bureaucratie" first known from the 18th century. Bureaucratic work had already been performed for many centuries.
Bureaucratic definition, of, relating to, or characteristic of a bureaucrat or a bureaucracy; arbitrary and routine. See more. By Charles C. Caris & Samuel Reynolds. The Islamic State’s June announcement of a “caliphate” is not empty rhetoric. In fact, the idea of the caliphate that rests within a controlled territory is a core part of ISIS’s political vision.
The laws that legislatures adopt provide a crucial opportunity for elected politicians to define public policy. But the ways politicians use laws to shape policy vary considerably across polities.
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At. The term ‘bureaucracy’ has been widely used with invidious connotations directed at government and business. Bureaucracy is an administrative system designed to accomplish large-scale administrative tasks by systematically coordinating the work of many individuals.