The first organic chemical to be synthesized in a laboratory as opposed to by a living organism directly was urea, a compound found in urine and widely used today in fertilizer products. Important Elements in Organic Chemistry In addition to carbon, essentially all organic compounds contain hydrogen. Oxygen and nitrogen are very frequently found in organic compounds. The halogens F, Cl, Br, and I are found in numerous compounds.
Bonding in Carbon Carbon form covalent bonds. Formation of covalent bond: Covalent bond formation involves sharing of electrons between bonding atoms which may be either same or different.
The number of electrons contributed by an atom for sharing is known as its covalency. Characteristics of covalent compounds: The crystalline forms are diamond and graphite whereas the amorphous forms are coal, charcoal, lamp black etc.
The first one to be identified was C- 60, which has carbon atoms arranged in the shape of a football. Unique Nature of Carbon Catenation: The property of elements to form long chains or rings by self linking of their own atoms- through covalent bonds is called catenation.
The extent of catenation depends upon the strength of the bonds between the atoms involved in catenation.
Saturated and Unsaturated Carbon Compounds In saturated compounds the valencies of all the carbon atoms are satisfied by single bonds between them. While in the unsaturated compounds, the valencies of all the carbon atoms are not satisfied by single bonds, thus in order to satisfy their valencies, they form double or triple bond between the carbon atoms.
The compounds which contain straight chain of carbon atoms e. Those compounds which are branched.
Closed chain compounds or Ring compounds: Cyclic compounds are called closed chain or ring compounds e. Hydrocarbons All those compounds which contain just carbon and hydrogen are called hydrocarbons.
Functional Group The atom or group of atoms which determine the properties of a compound is known as functional group. Homologous Series A series of compounds in which the same functional group substitutes hydrogen in a carbon chain is called a homologous series.
Nomenclature Chemists developed a set of rules, for naming organic compounds based on their structures which is known as IUPAC rules.
Prefix — word root — Suffix Word Root: A word root indicates the nature of basic carbon skeleton. In case a functional group is present, it is indicated in the name of the compound with either as a prefix or as a suffix. Chemical Properties of Carbon Compounds: Carbon compound undergo combustion reaction to produce CO2 and H20 with the evolution of heat and light.
The substance which are used for oxidation are known as oxidising agent.Ingestion The amount of water ingested by swimmers and pool users will depend upon a range of factors, including experience, age, skill and type of activity.
Overview. Organic chemical compounds 1 are everywhere in both indoor and outdoor environments because they have become essential ingredients in many products and materials..
Outdoors, VOCs are volatized or released into the air mostly during manufacture or use of everyday products and materials. Carbon and its Compounds – CBSE Notes for Class 10 Science. CBSE Notes CBSE Notes Science NCERT Solutions Science.
1. The earth’s crust, has only % carbon in the form of minerals (like carbonates^bicarbonates, coal, and petroleum). 2. The atmosphere has % of carbon dioxide. NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Science Chapter 4 Carbon and its Compounds.
Carbon compounds: Covalent bonding in carbon compounds, Versatile nature of carbon, Homologous series, Nomenclature of carbon compounds containing functional groups, (halogens, alcohol, ketones, aldehydes, alkanes and alkynes), difference between .
Essential Ideas. Physical and Chemical Properties cellulose in the match and oxygen from the air undergo a chemical change to form carbon dioxide and water vapor.
(c) Cooking red meat causes a number of chemical changes, including the oxidation of iron in myoglobin that results in the familiar red-to-brown color change.
SECTION VI PRODUCTS OF THE CHEMICAL OR ALLIED INDUSTRIES VI-1 Notes 1. (a) Goods (other than r adioactiv e ores) ans wering to a descr iption in heading .