How does architecture affect people?
Milgram, Stanley and Denise Jodelet. Cognition, or the way people understand the environment, occurs through immediate sensory experience coupled with memories and experiences from the past.
While psychologists often treat these as different phenomena or faculties, the papers in this section challenge that bifurcation. Psychological studies of perception and cognition look at how we organize, identify, and interpret information through our senses. Other experiments, including projects by artists and designers, have shed light on how we attach meaning to particular places and spaces.
Ecological psychology and other interdisciplinary research has demonstrated that human beings and their environments are produced in relation with one another.
In this way, knowledge and experience are situated in the interplay between person and environment. Specific places and moments generate particular knowledge and experiences; previous experiences shade understandings and lead people to recognize particular things or respond in specific ways.
Lewin felt that the social and physical environment or field—borrowing from the Gestalt psychological framework—is dynamic and changes over time, across spaces, and with experience; as such, people change over time as well.
In effect, people and space are connected and co-produce one another rather than exist as distinct, autonomous entities. In this section we have included other classics in this area of research that have further probed the relationship between people and environment through questions of perception and experience.
Where there is space, we make maps to define and navigate it. Beyond books, charts, and global positioning systems GPS that people frequently rely upon, human beings possess preconceived cognitive maps of many of the spaces they often traverse and which let us move through the world.
The concept of cognitive mapping describes the process human beings use to think about space and the ways in which they reflect and act upon those thoughts in their everyday behaviors Tolman In their selection, psychologists Stanley Milgram and Denise Jodelet asked participants to make hand-drawn maps—a technique termed mental mapping—in order to glean the cognitive maps Parisians have of Paris see figure at the beginning of Section 2.
This work revealed how these maps steer our actions, and speak to the deeper synchronic processes by which we receive and process knowledge. Their work displaced the idea of fixed mental maps as representations in the minds of individuals with a much more socially and culturally embedded psychological map that varies when elicited through different procedures.
The ability to inform design is often limited to architects, engineers, and designers, but who knows the city better than its residents? Urban planner Kevin Lynch was the first to employ the method of mental mapping in order to design cities from the perspectives of the citizens who live in them.
Based on individual interviews and mental maps of residents of three US cities—Boston, Jersey City, and Los Angeles—he outlines five key characteristics of the urban environment: In his book The Image of the City, he describes legibility as the quality of an environment to offer inhabitants clues about where they are and what they can do.
One of the most seemingly simple yet truly profound theoretical contributions to the work on visual perception is the theory of affordances developed by psychologist James J.Yes, and that fact sorely lacks focus in the profession. I also strongly repudiate the prevailing in architectural education that "architecture as art" when it is applied to residential construction or any kind of personalize environment.
Social interaction can be discussed in terms of four concepts: privacy, personal interaction levels, territoriality, and orient their desk in order to visually control the doorway Human Behavior and the Interior Environment significantly to a desirable level of communication, social .
The Article Architecture and Health () states that “partitioning space can accommodate increases in spatial density without increasing effective social density” (para.
7). This means that breaking up an area into smaller spaces has the effect of lowering people's perception of social density or crowding even if this density is actually. Public and private are social constructs that conceptualize different domains of everyday life— from the interiority and privacy of our bodies and homes to the publicness of city streets and public space.
As an architecture major, you think about the paths people take and how objects, buildings, and natural landscapes affect peoples lives. A question I have for you is in regard to your last paragraphs.
Lewin felt that the social and physical environment or field—borrowing from the Gestalt psychological framework—is dynamic and changes over time, across spaces, and with experience; as such, people change over time as well. In effect, people and space are connected and co-produce one another rather than exist as distinct, autonomous entities.
|Build me up: how architecture can affect emotions||Our environment effects our mood.|