The factors affecting individuals gangs

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The factors affecting individuals gangs

Causal factors of family violence and child abuse in Aboriginal communities Introduction This section outlines what the literature says about causal factors of family violence and child abuse in Aboriginal communities.

While the broader literature on the causes of family violence outside Aboriginal families is not reviewed in detail here, it should be noted that there are strong parallels between the two bodies of literature. Aboriginal writers and commentators also make this link for example Hazelhurst In contrast, much of the knowledge coming from the Indigenous community is based on personal and first-hand experience, rather than a structured form of data collection.

This knowledge is commonly repeated and confirmed by many people, thus providing the information with some validity. Very little research in the violence area has been done by, or with, Indigenous communities, it is important that the knowledge generated by Indigenous peoples is incorporated into any future attempt to develop solutions to violence.

Initially, most of the approaches focused on identification of single factors Browne These factors, derived from retrospective studies included: However, in the s the limitations of focusing on single factors was recognised.

In particular, it became clear that no single factor could account for child maltreatment. Researchers then began to investigate the interactions of parent, child and environmental factors.

These social interactionist models emphasise the importance of viewing child abuse and neglect within the context of the child, family, their local community and society.

Thus theories of the causes of child maltreatment have shifted from explanations based on individual pathology to explanations where abuse is a symptom of significant childrearing problems, often occurring in families with other significant family problems e.

The factors affecting individuals gangs

The causes of child abuse in Indigenous communities While there exists a number of different theories on the causes of family violence and child abuse in Indigenous communities, it is commonly believed that child abuse is caused by a multitude of factors.

This view is supported by the majority of commentators from the s onwards. For example, the National Aboriginal Health Strategy Working Party reported that domestic violence, which the noted was frequently associated with alcohol consumption, could not be attributed to any one cause.

Atkinson ban important Indigenous commentator, lists some of the contributing factors to family violence in Indigenous communities as being: He listed the following multi-causal factors for high rates of violence: One factor contributing to this is the forced westernisation of marriage relationships in Aboriginal communities around the concept of adolescence, where previously girls were married at the onset of puberty.

Memmott and colleagues suggested that the causes of violence are often, and probably best, considered in three contributing categories.

The literature provides some details in relation to a number of causal factors. It should be noted that various causal factors may be given different emphasis by different authors and commentators, similar factors may be described in a number of varying ways, and the factors are not discrete but are inter-related, often with multi-directional causes and effects.

Update: 2013-201

Underlying factors which cause family violence Intergenerational layers of trauma A number of prominent Indigenous spokespersons believe that present dysfunctional behaviour that occurs within Indigenous communities, including violence in general and the sexual assault of Indigenous children, is grounded in unresolved grief associated with multiple layers of trauma which has spanned many generations for example, AtkinsonPearsonRobertson This pain has become internalised within the family, expressing itself in destructive behaviours such as family violence, alcohol and drug abuse and suicide Atkinson While variously described, these traumas almost exclusively relate to the impact on Indigenous communities of their interface with the dominant white communities throughout the history of white settlement of Australia, including contemporary Australian society.Media Violence vs.

Real Violence - Television is the source of the most broadly shared images and messages in history; it is the mainstream of the common symbolic environment into which children are born and which has a major part to play in our lives. Family: Family disorganization, including broken homes and parental drug/alcohol abuse: Bjerregaard and Smith, ; Esbensen, Huizinga, and Weiher, ; Hill et al.

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March Newsletter

Understanding why some young people join gangs while others do not is key to effective prevention efforts. Current research suggests the need to address specific risk factors that lead youth to violence and gangs.

Factors affecting tax compliance attitude in Africa: Evidence from Kenya, for instance criminal gangs, in exchange for protection, reduces individual’s likelihood to In this study, we therefore examine the factors affecting attitudes towards compliance.

While this has been done in some previous studies using Afrobarometer data. [page unnumbered] FOREWORD BY THE SECRETARY OF STATE FOR EDUCATION AND SCIENCE.

This report is about a complex and important subject. The response of the education service to ethnic diversity concerns all who have responsibilities in education as well as all parents and their children.

Legislature and Government - OSPI